A skyscraper is a tall continuous building having multiple floors. Skyscrapers appears like they are touching the sky. Historically the first term skyscrapers refers to be a tall building and these types of buildings have began to constructed from 1880. Skyscrapers are mostly host office, hotels, residential spaces or retail places. The number of skyscrapers has been increasing because of advanced technological development. The term skyscrapers were originally applied to a building with 10 to 20 stories but now the term skyscrapers were used to describe high rise building of unusual heights generally greater than 40 to 50 stories.
The first skyscrapers were built in United States. The increase in urban commerce in the United States in the second half of the 19th century augmented the need for city business space, and the installation of the first safe passenger elevator in the Haughwout Department Store, New York City in 1857 made practical the erection of buildings more than four or five stories tall. Although the earliest skyscrapers rested on extremely thick masonry walls at the ground level, architects soon turned to the use of a cast-iron and wrought-iron framework to support the weight of the upper floors, allowing for more floor space on the lower stories. James Bogardus built the Cast Iron Building in 1848, New York City with a rigid frame of iron providing the main support for upper-floor and roof loads.
Common feature of skyscrapers is having a steel framework that supports curtail walls. These curtain walls either bear on the framework below or are suspended from the framework above, rather than resting on load bearing-walls of conventional construction. Modern skyscraper’s walls are not load bearing and most of the skyscrapers are characterized by large surface areas of windows made possible by steel frames and curtail walls. Modern skyscrapers often have a tubular structure and are designed to act like a hollow cylinder to resist wind, seismic, and other lateral loads.
Skyscrapers are perfectly safe, it may shiver and sway, just stay away from the windows. Skyscrapers are designed to collapse among themselves when they are destroyed. It is designed to spread the weight out and if all the 20,000 tons or more on the top of one of its sides, it would immediately collapse downwards, not sideways. Smaller buildings can fall sideways. Experts say all tall structures are bound to sway a little bit in the wind. But builders have to be sure that super-strong winds don’t topple a skyscraper. So the concrete that’s used to make these tall buildings is strengthened with steel rods and beams. This steel makes up the “skeleton” of the skyscraper.
In India, the skyscraper’s era has began with the completion of LIC building in Chennai in 1959, with 15 floors, it is the first tallest skyscrapers in India which remained until 1961, then it surpassed by the 25 storied Usha Kiran Building in Mumbai. Now there are many tall building appeared in various cities, currently there are 130 skyscrapers in India out of which 73 are completed while 57 are under construction. Since 2020, the tallest building in the country is “World One” at 285 metres which is 935 feet tall. Many taller buildings are under construction across the country now. Among them Mumbai has the highest concentration of high rise buildings.
As of 2020, there are nearly 74 tallest fully completed skyscrapers in the world which reaches a height of 350 meters which is 1,150 feet tall. Out of these 37 were in China. Some of the tallest skyscrapers are as follows:
- Burj Khalifa (Dubai – UAE): It was built in 2010; it is 828m (2,717ft) tall, with 163 floors.
- Shanghai Tower (Shanghai – China) – It was built in 2015; it is 632m (2,073ft) tall, with 128 floors. It is the tallest twisted building.
- Abraj Al-Bait Clock Tower (Mecca – Saudi Arabia) – It was built in 2012, it is 601m (1,971ft) tall, with 120 floors. It is the tallest building with a clock face
- Ping An Finance Center (Shenzhen – China) – It was built in 2017; it is 599m (1,965ft) tall, with 115 floors. It shares the record of the highest observation deck with shanghai Tower.
- Lotte World Tower (Seoul – South Korea) – It was built in 2014; it is 554.5m (1,819ft) with 123 floors. It is the tallest building in the Korean Peninsula.