Urban planning is a professional way of developing urban areas by mating physical plans and development regulations. Regional planning deals with efficient placement of land use activities, infrastructure and settlement growth across a larger area of land than an individual city or town. Regional planning is related to urban planning as it relate land use practice on a broader scale.
Urban planning is a combination of social, economic, environmental and constructive efforts to make an urban dwelling a good, healthy place to live, work and to move around. It was sure to ease the negative physical and social effects on people that arose with industrial revolution, particularly in urban areas.
The urban local governments implements urban development strategies. Urban local governments are elected by the people. Planning and development for major cities and urban regions are done by urban/metropolitan/regional development authorities. These authorities are functionaries institutions under the state government.
On the state government level, urban planning and development administration is administered by State Town Planning act and other relevant legal framework for each state. Currently all states have ministries responsible for urban planning, development and governance. The government consideres a statement as urban if it has an urban local government, a minimum population of 5000, over 75% of its (male) population working in non-agricultural activities and a population density of atleast 400/km².
There are 53 urban agglomeration on India with a population of one million and above, but these agglomerations spread across various states. With different rules and regulations regarding land, transport across the states, this severely affects infrastructure development.
The 1992 amendment requires state governments to modify their municipal by laws to empower urban local bodies to function as institutions of self governance. However, most urban local bodies suffer from poor institutions framework and talent shortages. Moreover, the degree to which decision-making power have been developed on practice varies widely from state to state. There is a range of institutions such as state water and sewerage boards, due to these overlapping functional jurisdiction, they find little coordination amongst them. Since there is no regional/metropolitan planning on India and metropolitan governance structure are fragmented, public transport and environmental conservation are in a poor state.
National Urban Policy Framework 2018 seeks to rebuild Indian cities around clusters of human capital, instead of considering them simply as an agglomeration of land use. It is a welcome transition. It also focuses on land policy reforms, urban local bodies the freedom to raise financing and enforce local land wage norms.
Transportation planning plays a major role on ensuring sustainable and balanced regional development through inter city and Rural-Urban connectivity. The regional rapid transition system, planned for Delhi-NCR under the National Capital Regional Transport Corporation (NRCT) that can immensely improve. Connectivity between Delhi and for plung areas such as Meerut, Alwar and Panipat, can spur economic growth in the region.
The ease of living index launched in sept 2018 has been a transformative initiative of the urban ministry to help cities assess their livability. India spends about $17per capita annually on urban infrastructure projects, against a global benchmark of $100 and china’s $116.
The union cabinet has approved the creation of Rs 60,000 crore National Urban Housing Fund to finance the the government’s housing for all programme ,which aims to build 12 million affordable housing units on urban areas by 2022 . This is a step on the right direction. The policy should be drafted that aims at tackling the rehabilitation and resettlement of people living on slums.
The National Green Tribunal direction for carrying out the capacity assessment of ecologically sensitive and geologically fragile areas must be expedited . Finally there is need to frame a systematic policy to deal with urban migration. India has been among the fastest -growing economies on the world for more than two decades. This has brought the structural transformation of the economy such that the share of agricultural in GDP has declined to 14%and that of services has increased to 58%. But this structural transformation must involved spatien transformation.